Mechanical and metallographic testing: equipment for ground joint production

Wet cutting machine (BRILLANT 250)

Technical data:

  • Specimen diameters up to 110 mm and a wide range of clamping options
  • Hot mounting press (OPAL 410)
  • Cold mounting option for pressure and temperature-sensitive specimens
  • Grinding and polishing unit (SAPHIR 530) for specimen diameters of 30mm and 40mm
  • Etchant

Manufacturer: ATM GmbH

AMLab location: Augsburg and Garching

The existing laboratory equipment of the AMLab consists among other things of a wet-grinding machine, the possibility for cold and warm embedding as well as a grinding and polishing device and is used for the preparation of sections for subsequent macroscopic and microscopic material examinations. In this process, the surface representative of the material or of certain material defects is made visible, if necessary by etching in the material, in order to obtain conclusions about the microstructure and defects.

Hardness test ZHUZ2.5

Technical data:

  • Hardness test methods according to:
    Rockwell, Vickers, Knoop and Brinell on metals and ball indentation hardness on plastics.
  • Indentation test according to (Martens, DIN EN ISO 14577)
  • Test force 5 - 2500 N and 2 - 200 N
  • Resolution of the indentation depth measuring system 0.02 μm

Manufacturer: Zwick Roell AG

AMLab location: Augsburg and Garching

The universal hardness testing machine from Zwick Roell AG is used to determine material-specific characteristic values according to standardized DIN test methods, such as the classic Rockwell, Vickers, Knoop and Brinell hardness tests. Within the AMLab, for example, this automated test procedure is carried out on specimens after a microstructure and porosity examination to enable comprehensive material characterization and conclusions to be drawn about the manufacturing process.

Zwick Roell Z100 tensile testing machine

Technical data:

  • Mechanical testing for example on metals, ceramics, composites, plastics.
  • Tensile, compression and flexure tests, low-cycle fatigue test (LCF), creep tests, relaxation and retardation tests.
  • Test load (tension/compression) 5 kN and 100 kN
  • test speed 0.0005...600 mm/min
  • force-, strain- or speed-controlled operation

Manufacturer: Zwick Roell AG

AMLab location: Augsburg and Garching

Mechanical materials testing enables the material properties of additive components to be characterized and is used to determine material-specific, fracture-mechanical characteristic values which provide information on deformation and isotropy behavior. Zwick Roell's tensile testing machine can be used for a wide range of materials.

Laser microscope VK-9710K

Technical data:

  • Short wavelength semiconductor laser
  • (wavelength= 408 nm)
  • Optical magnification up to 150x
  • Non-contact 3D measurements with high depth of field
  • Profile and roughness measurements, thickness measurements, measurements on transparent foils
  • Porosity determination

Manufacturer: Keyence Germany GmbH

AMLab location: Augsburg

The laser microscope in the metallography laboratory of the AMLab uses optical measurement analysis to investigate material properties. With the aid of a UV laser and a maximum optical magnification of 150x, precise images can be taken. In this way, the sample sections also produced there can be examined and the additive manufacturing technology can thus be analyzed and characterized.

Olympus BX53M reflected light microscope

Manufacturer: Olympus

AMLab location: Augsburg

The Olympus BX53M reflected-light microscope offers a wide range of applications due to its modular design with strong optical performance, high-intensity white LED sources and a consistent color temperature across different intensities. This allows closer examination of in-house produced components, surfaces, weld tracks, powders, grindings and etchings.

Scanning electron microscope Hitachi TM3030plus

Technical data:

  • Magnification: 15 to 60,000x (digital zoom: 2x, 4x).
    Viewing: 5 kV / 15 kV / EDX

Manufacturer:Hitachi

AMLab location: Augsburg

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to investigate surface morphologies of specimens or powder particles by means of electron beams. Within the AMLab, a low vacuum SEM Hitachi TM3030Plus Tabletop Microscope operating with secondary electrons and backscattered electrons is used, which has a high voltage of 5 and 15 kV. The instrument also includes an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) apparatus to determine the chemical elements present in a sample. In this way, for example, powder particles can be examined, their size determined and samples taken can be checked for contamination with other powders or foreign substances.

3D digitizer Steinbichler L3D (2M)

Technical data:

  • 3D data acquisition and digitization
  • Target/actual comparison, geometry matching
  • Camera resolution: 1600 x 1200 pixels
  • Measuring volume in mm:
    100 Measuring field: 100 x 75 x 60
    200 Measuring field: 215 x 165 x 140
  • 3D point spacing:
    100 measuring field: 60 μm
    200 Measuring field: 135 μm
    Measuring time: 1.5 sec

Manufacturer: Steinbichler Optotechnik GmbH

AMLab location: Garching

The 3D digitizer enables three-dimensional data acquisition of objects for comparison of the nominal/actual condition or geometry comparison of used design data with the real dimensions of the manufactured component. With the help of this technology, the quality of additively manufactured components can be directly checked and analyzed.

Surface testing SURFTEST SJ-410

Technical data:

  • Max. Expression 800 μm
  • Resolution 0.0125 μm
  • 46 roughness parameters according to ISO, DIN, ANSI, and JIS standards
  • Sensitive measurement of roughness and waviness
  • skidless measurement function

Manufacturer: Mitutoyo GmbH

AMLab location: Garching

Surface inspection is a simple method for analyzing surface structure according to DIN-ISO standardized standards. Thus, within the AMLab, surface measurements are performed on additively manufactured samples, which allow conclusions to be drawn about the process and thus increase process understanding.

Height gauges Hi-Cal 300

Technical data:

  • Measuring range up to 300 mm
  • Error limit 2.5+L[mm]/175 μm
  • Repeatability 2μm
  • Adjustment speed 50/100 mm/s
  • Measuring force 0.2/0.3 N

Manufacturer: Sylvac AG

AMLab location: Garching

Accurate and sensitive geometric measurements are necessary to verify and ensure the precision and accuracy of manufacturing processes. The height measuring device Hi-Cal 300 offers the possibility to measure inner and outer diameters as well as center distances, heights, thicknesses and depths of additively manufactured components.

Thermography system VarioCAM hr head

Technical data:

  • uncooled microbolometer focal plane array
  • (640x480) infrared pixels, with Resolution Enhancement (1280x960) infrared pixels
  • Spectral range (7.5 - 14) µm
  • Infrared frame rate 50/60 Hz
  • Real-time digital interface (FireWire/IEEE 1394)
  • Temperature range (-40 ... 1,200) °C, high temperature calibration up to 1,700°C

Manufacturer: InfraTec GmbH Infrared sensor and measurement technology

AMLab location: Garching

The radiometric thermography system VarioCAM® hr head based on an uncooled microbolometer FPA detector with (384 x 288) or (640 x 480) pixels was primarily designed for PC-based use. The different equipment variants allow an optimal adaptation of VarioCAM® hr head to the measuring task. The performance spectrum ranges from automatic threshold detection and signaling configurable via RS232 to digital 50/60 Hz real-time image acquisition via IEEE 1394 and online processing for process control on a PC. The large standard temperature measurement range, various high-quality infrared lenses, as well as extensive accessories, recommend VarioCAM® hr head for a wide range of applications in research and development. Configured for specific applications, this easy-to-use thermography system can also be used for monitoring tasks that require continuous operation and automatic operation.

Olympus I-Speed high speed camera

Technical data:

  • Monochrome
  • Max. Resolution 1280x1024 pixels at 2,000 fps. (max. image capture rate 150,000 fps at 60x44 pixel resolution)
  • ISO Rating (ISO 12232): 5,000; 40,000 at maximum sensor gain
  • Exposure time 1 µs (QS mode) with automatic FPN correction (2.16 µs with HQ mode)
  • Trigger 0-5 V TTL, video trigger, ROC, BROC
  • Image storage formats Raw Bayer/ AVI/ MJPEG
  • On-board image processing
  • CMOS sensor; sensor size: 21.504x26.88 mm, pixel size: 21 µm, bit depth 10 bit

Manufacturer: IX-Cameras

AMLab location: Garching

The Olympus I-Speed high-speed camera system from IX-Cameras captures images up to a resolution of 1280x1024 with its CMOS sensor. With a light sensitivity of up to ISO 40,000 and image acquisition rates of up to 150,000 fps, this camera is suitable for resolving highly dynamic processes.

High speed camera thermography camera Infratec ImageIR 8300

Technical data:

  • Spectral range: 2.0 - 5.7 µm
  • Pitch: 15 µm
  • Detector type: MCT or InSb
  • detector format: 640x512 pixel
  • Image format with opto-mechanical MicroScan (IR pixels): 1,280 x 1,024 pixels
  • readout mode: ITR / IWR
  • Aperture ratio: f/3.0 or f/2.0
  • Detector cooling: Stirling cooler
  • Temperature measuring range: (-40 ... 1,500)°C, up to 3,000°C
  • Measuring accuracy: +- 1°C or +- 1 %.
  • Temperature resolution at 30°C: < 0,02 K
  • IR frame rate: up to 125 / 404 / 1,051 / 2,996 Hz

Manufacturer: InfraTec

AMLab location: Garching

The ImageIR series offers 640x512 IR pixels of a high-resolution detector. The modular concept allows subsequent upgrading and retrofitting by powerful components, such as motorized focal optics or high-speed shutter. The thermal resolution allows the detection of the smallest temperature differences (down to 0.02°C at 30°C). Thermal images can be captured at frame rates of up to 2996 Hz, providing insight into transient process temperature changes. The VX500 3D printing system from voxeljet produces individual molds and cores quickly and economically, with detailed plastic models using PMMA and high surface quality possible. Plastic or sand can be used as a particle material.

AMLab Powder Laboratory

Binder KMF 115 climatic cabinet

Technical data:

  • Interior volume: 102 l
  • Temperature range: -10°C - 100°C
  • Average heating rate: 1.3 K/min
  • Average cooling rate: 0.5 K/min
  • Humidity range: 10 % - 98 % r.H.

Manufacturer: Binder GmbH

AMLab location: Augsburg

The Binder KMF 115 climatic chamber is used to test the storage and handling conditions of metallic powders. Here, the powder is exposed to a defined temperature and humidity for a specified period of time in order to check their influence on the powder and component properties.

Bruker G8 Galileo ON/H High Performance Oxygen, Nitrogen and Hydrogen Analyzer

Manufacturer: Bruker

AMLab location: Augsburg

The Bruker G8 Galileo ON/H analyzer is used in the Powder Lab of AMLab for the determination of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in powders by melting the sample by carrier gas melt extraction and automatically checking the resulting sample gases. This allows, for example, conclusions to be drawn about the influence of storage, multiple-use and corrosion of different powder materials.

Freeman Technology FT4 Powder Rheometer

© Image courtesy of Freeman Technology

Technical data:

  • Force: +/- 50N maximum (0.0001N resolution)
  • Torque: +/- 900mNm maximum (0.002mNm resolution)
  • Vertical travel: 185mm
  • Rotor speed: 120 rpm maximum
  • Axial speed: 30 mm/sec maximum
  • Residual energy level in the air: < 2mJ

Manufacturer: Freeman Technology Ltd.

AMLab location: Augsburg

This Powder Lab powder rheometer can be used to characterize the flow properties of powders, which play a key role in powder bed-based manufacturing processes: For example, the resistance of the powder to flow and the shear forces of the powder on the wall of the equipment (ASTM standard D7891) are measured, allowing conclusions to be drawn about their influence in the manufacturing process.

Infrared moisture meter Sartorius MA 100

Technical data:

  • Heating source: Halogen lamp
  • Readability: 0.1 mg, 0.001 %.
  • Weighing range max.: 100 g
  • Measuring the accuracy of the weighing system: 0.1 mg
  • Temperature range and setting: 30°C - 180°C in 1 degree increments

Manufacturer: Sartorius

AMLab location: Augsburg

The MA 100 IR moisture analyzer features the highest possible measuring accuracy of the current thermogravimetric moisture analyzers and can thus check powders for their moisture content. At the same time, it includes extensive functions and a high degree of flexibility, so that it can be adapted to frequently changing sample materials or changing requirements for the measurement process.

Laser diffraction particle size analysis instrument Malvern Panalytical Mastersizer 3000E

© Image courtesy of Malvern Panalytical

Technical data:

  • Particle sizes: 0.1-1000 µm
  • Principle: Laser light scattering
  • Analysis: Mie and Fraunhofer scattering
  • Measurement accuracy: Better than 0.6

Manufacturer: Malvern Panalytical

AMLab location: Augsburg

The Mastersizer 3000E from Malvern Panalytical is used within AMLab for particle size measurement of powders. Here, wet- or dry-dispersed particles are irradiated with a light source and their size and shape are calculated based on the intensity of the scattered light as it passes through the particle sample and the diffraction pattern present. In this way, the particle size distribution of powders can be checked and the influence of the manufacturing process on it can be traced.